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Metabolism Is – Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat Metabolism

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MateriBelajar.co.id – On this occasion, explain the material, papers, understanding, types, functions, metabolic processes of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Metabolism is a chemical process that occurs in the body of living things. For more details, see the explanation below.

metabolism

Definition and Process of Metabolism

Metabolism is a chemical process that occurs in the body of living things. Metabolism is the exchange of substances or organisms with their environment. The origin of the term metabolism comes from the Greek, which is taken from the word metabolism which change.

So it can be said that metabolism is a living thing that gets, processes and changes a substance through chemical processes to survive.

Type of Metabolism

1. catabolism is the breakdown of a substance into smaller particles to be converted into energy.

2. Anabolism is a reaction to assemble organic compounds derived from certain molecules to be absorbed by the body.

Metabolic Process

There are three main metabolic processes in the body, namely:

A. Carbohydrate Metabolism

carbohydrate metabolismcarbohydrate metabolism
carbohydrate metabolism

Metabolism occurs in organisms both mechanically and chemically. There are two types of carbohydrate metabolism:

  • Anabolism plays a role in the formation of molecules
  • Catabolism is the breakdown of molecules

The process of carbohydrate metabolism is that food is digested and then broken down, then carbohydrates undergo a hydrolysis process or decomposition using water molecules which break down polysaccharides and then into monosaccharides.

When food is chewed, the food is then mixed with saliva which contains saliva ptyalin enzyme (amylase secreted by the parotid gland in the mouth). This enzyme hydrolyzes starch (polysaccharide) into maltose and a small glucose group consisting of 3 to 9 glucose molecules.

The food stays in the mouth for a short time with no more than 3-5% of the starch hydrolyzed when the food is swallowed.

Ptyalin can continue to break down food into maltose for 1 hour after food enters the stomach when gastric contents mix with substances secreted by the stomach.

Ultimately, the activity of ptyalin is inhibited or inhibited by the acidic substances secreted by the stomach. This can happen because ptyalin is an amylase enzyme that is not active in PH is dropping below 4.0.

After food is emptied from the stomach and into the duodenum (duodenum), the food will mix with pancreatic juice. Starch that has not been decomposed will be digested by amylase whose function is the same as a-amylase in saliva, namely as a decomposer of starch into maltose and other small glucose polymers.

However, starch is generally almost completely converted to maltose and small glucose polymers before passing through the stomach.

The end products of the digestive process are fructose, glucose, galactose, mannose and other monosaccharides. These compounds are then absorbed through the intestinal wall and carried to the liver by the blood.

B. Protein Metabolism

protein metabolismprotein metabolism
protein metabolism

Protein foods, meat and vegetables contain lots of protein. Protein will be digested in the stomach using the enzyme pepsin which is active at a pH of 2-3. Pepsin can also digest all kinds of proteins in foods that digest collagen.

Collagen is the main raw material in connective tissue in skin and cartilage. From the beginning of the protein digestion process, pepsin accounts for 10-30% of the total protein digestion. Regarding this process, the breakdown or breakdown of proteins is a hydrolysis process in the polypeptide chain.

Most of the protein digestion process occurs in the intestines with modified forms, namely proteose, peptones, and large polypeptides. then after entering the intestine, the materials that have been broken down will mostly mix with pancreatic enzymes under the influence of proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, and peptidase. Both trypsin and chymotrypsin break down these protein molecules into small polypeptides. After that the peptidase releases amino acids.

Amino acids in the blood come from absorption through the intestinal wall, due to the breakdown of proteins in cells, and due to protein synthesis of amino acids in cells, and due to amino acid synthesis in cells.

Amino acids that are synthesized in cells or obtained from the breakdown of proteins in the liver are then transported to the blood for use in tissues. In this case, the liver functions to regulate the concentration of amino acids in the blood.

Excess protein is not stored in the body, but will be broken down in the liver and will become compounds containing elements N, similar NH3 (ammonia) and NH4OH(ammonium hydroxide), as well as compounds that do not contain trace elements N.

Compounds that contain elements N synthesized into urea. The formation of urea that takes place in the liver because the liver cells will produce the enzyme arginase. While the urea produced is not needed by the body, so it will be transported with other substances to the kidneys, then excreted through the urine.

On the other hand, compounds that do not contain elements N which is synthesized will return to the raw material of carbohydrates and fats, so that it can be oxidized in the body to produce energy.

C. Fat metabolism

fat metabolismfat metabolism
fat metabolism

Digestion of fat will occur in the intestine, that’s because the intestine contains the enzyme lipase. The process of fat metabolism, namely fat will come out of the stomach and then enter the intestine and cause stimulation of the hormone cholecystokinin.

This hormone causes the gallbladder to contract by releasing bile into the duodenum. Bile contains bile salts which emulsify fats.

Fat emulsion is the breakdown of large fat into smaller fat globules. The smaller fat is an emulsified triglyceride which functions to facilitate the hydrolysis of fat by lipase from the pancreatic effect.

Then pancreatic lipase hydrolyzes the emulsified fat into a mixture of fatty acids and monoglycerides (single glycerides). The secretion of pancreatic juice is designed by the hormone secretin which functions to increase the amount of electrically conducting compounds (electronic) and pancreatic juice and pancreoenzymes with the function of stimulating the release of enzymes in pancreatic juice.

Functions of Metabolic Processes

Metabolic processes have functions for living things, including:

1. Produces chemical energy in the form of ATP, which results from the degradation of energy-rich food substances from the environment
2. As a modifier of food substance molecules (nutrients) into precursors of cell biomolecule building units
3. As a constituent of building units into proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, polysaccharides, and other cell components.
4. As a builder and reformer of biomolecules

Thus Clarification Regarding Metabolism and Metabolism Process, Hopefully Helpful….

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